API.API-571.v2019-03-23.q272

Exam Code:API-571
Exam Name:Corrosion and Materials Professional
Certification Provider:API
Free Question Number:272
Version:v2019-03-23
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Exam Question List
Question 1: In piping and equipment, creep cracking can occur where high...
Question 2: What is the chemical symbol for propane or propylene?...
Question 3: In HF service, carbon steel operating above ________ should ...
Question 4: Which of the following can be affected by 885º F Embrittleme...
Question 5: Carbonate cracking typically propagates _________ to the wel...
Question 6: ____________ are characterized by a localized loss in thickn...
Question 7: Units where graphitization may be suspected are the FCCU and...
Question 8: Temper embrittlement _________ be prevented if the material ...
Question 9: Temperature, ________ and stress are critical factors of str...
Question 10: SCC tendency ________ towards the alkaline pH region...
Question 11: Hydrogen stress cracking is the same mechanism that is respo...
Question 12: Which of these materials are not susceptible to Spheroidizat...
Question 13: _________ is most likely found in hard weld and heat-affecte...
Question 14: In HF service, carbon steel forms a protective _________ sca...
Question 15: Type 304L SS is satisfactory for phosphoric acid concentrati...
Question 16: In most cases, brittle fracture occurs only at temperatures ...
Question 17: Which of the following materials are susceptible to nitridin...
Question 18: __________ is a form of cracking that results when certain m...
Question 19: ____________ is a form of environmental cracking that can in...
Question 20: Which of the following is not a primary factor contributing ...
Question 21: Time to failure by thermal fatigue is primarily affected by:...
Question 22: Stainless steel cyclones, piping ductwork and valves in high...
Question 23: Naphthenic acid corrosion is a form of high temperature corr...
Question 24: Creep and stress rupture is more likely in a _________ grain...
Question 25: With sour water corrosion, at a given pressure, the H²S conc...
Question 26: Convert these temperatures - 156º C and 450º F...
Question 27: The best method to inspect for SCC is ____....
Question 28: Annealed steels are more resistant to Spheroidization than n...
Question 29: __________ is a change in the microstructure of certain carb...
Question 30: A 6", A106 Gr B, flanged line carrying caustic wash water at...
Question 31: Sulfidation is primarily caused by ________ and other reacti...
Question 32: __________ is usually found in aqueous environments or servi...
Question 33: Corrosion from oxygen in boiler feed water usually creates:...
Question 34: Different organisms thrive on different nutrients including ...
Question 35: 300 Series SS, 400 Series SS and duplex SS are subject to pi...
Question 36: Naphthenic acid is _____ by catalytic reactions in downstrea...
Question 37: Amine cracking has been reported down to ambient temperature...
Question 38: The extent and depth of decarburization is a function of tem...
Question 39: Atmospheric corrosion:
Question 40: Ferritic stainless steels are usually not used in __________...
Question 41: A fatigue fracture is brittle and the cracks are most often ...
Question 42: Sulfur and chlorine species in fuel will form sulfur dioxide...
Question 43: Once cracking from LME has occurred, grinding out the affect...
Question 44: For galvanic corrosion to take place, three conditions must ...
Question 45: In order for PASCC to occur the material must be ______....
Question 46: __________ are the most common type of equipment susceptible...
Question 47: Titanium should not be used in known hydriding services such...
Question 48: Spheroidization and graphitization are competing mechanisms ...
Question 49: Stress relief and stabilization heat treatment of 300 Series...
Question 50: Soil corrosion of carbon steel can be minimized through the ...
Question 51: Ammonium chloride salts may be whitish, greenish or ________...
Question 52: Which of the following are affected by sulfidation?...
Question 53: Steam blanketing is when the heat flow balance is disturbed;...
Question 54: Since all fuels contain some amount of sulfur, sulfuric and ...
Question 55: Corrosion by HF (Hydrofluoric) acid can result in high rates...
Question 56: Which if the following materials are not susceptible to hydr...
Question 57: Which of the following materials is susceptible to CO² corro...
Question 58: Carburization can be confirmed by substantial increases in _...
Question 59: Hardness levels above ________ are highly susceptible to hyd...
Question 60: Preventative measures to minimize the potential for brittle ...
Question 61: With decarburization, the decarburized layer will be free of...
Question 62: Temper embrittlement can be identified by a(n) shift in the ...
Question 63: Vessels constructed after December, 1987 are subject to the ...
Question 64: Resistance to sulfidation increases as the:...
Question 65: The level of creep damage is a function of the material and ...
Question 66: _________ corrosion rates are found in a gas oil desulfurize...
Question 67: Equipment that is temper embrittled may be susceptible to __...
Question 68: Regular and controlled carbon grades of stainless steels suc...
Question 69: Caustic embrittlement cracking can be effectively prevented ...
Question 70: Cracks connecting hydrogen blisters are referred to as _____...
Question 71: High strength steels are susceptible to LME when they come i...
Question 72: ________ has been a major problem on coke drum shells....
Question 73: ______ is most likely found in hard welds and heat affected ...
Question 74: Which of the following materials is affected by high tempera...
Question 75: Which of the following metals is the most anodic?...
Question 76: Start-up and shutdown of equipment increase the susceptibili...
Question 77: The effects of hydrogen embrittlement ___________ with _____...
Question 78: SCC usually occurs at pH values above two (2). SCC tendency ...
Question 79: Thermal fatigue cracks usually:...
Question 80: Which of these materials are susceptible to brittle fracture...
Question 81: In general, the resistance of iron and nickel based alloys t...
Question 82: Hydrogen permeation or diffusion rates have been found to be...
Question 83: All piping and equipment exposed to HF acid at any concentra...
Question 84: Fatigue cracks usually initiate on the surface at notches or...
Question 85: Thermal fatigue becomes of concern if the temperature swings...
Question 86: High temperature H² / H²S corrosion damage is minimized by u...
Question 87: Many thermal fatigue cracks are filled with:...
Question 88: ________ and _______ damage develop without applied or resid...
Question 89: Protection in a boiler from boiler feed water corrosion is a...
Question 90: Low alloy steels contain a maximum of _______ chrome....
Question 91: At a given pressure, the H²S concentration in the sour water...
Question 92: Hardness is primarily an issue with SSC. Typical low strengt...
Question 93: Geometry, stress level, _________ and material properties ar...
Question 94: ______ is similar to HIC but is a potentially more damaging ...
Question 95: ________ eliminates the susceptibility of most common steels...
Question 96: Which of these materials exhibit an endurance limit below wh...
Question 97: Which of the following is not a critical factor that contrib...
Question 98: Corrosion rates of the anode will be less affected if there ...
Question 99: Which of the following does not increases the likelihood of ...
Question 100: Which of these cast irons are not susceptible to graphitic c...
Question 101: __________ is a form of damage found mostly in older vintage...
Question 102: At elevated temperatures, dissimilar weld metal cracking is ...
Question 103: For a specific material, HTHA is dependent on temperature, h...
Question 104: A condition where steel loses strength due to the removal of...
Question 105: SSC is a form of hydrogen stress cracking resulting from the...
Question 106: The most common method used for monitoring underground struc...
Question 107: With very few exceptions, cooling water should always be on ...
Question 108: The accepted way to test for temper embrittlement is _______...
Question 109: The severity of hydrochloric acid corrosion ________ with __...
Question 110: Dew point corrosion can occur if the metal temperature is be...
Question 111: Which of the following is not a major factor associated with...
Question 112: Corrosion from oxygen tends to be __________ type damage and...
Question 113: Thermal fatigue is caused by:
Question 114: With CUI, corrosion rates __________ with increasing metal t...
Question 115: Sulfidation is also known as ____________....
Question 116: Cavitation is a form of erosion caused by the formation and ...
Question 117: _________ is accelerated high temperature wastage of materia...
Question 118: MIC is often found in _________, bottom water of storage tan...
Question 119: It is generally accepted that stresses approaching _________...
Question 120: Hydrogen blisters may form at many different depths from the...
Question 121: With short term overheating, time to failure will __________...
Question 122: Cracking of dissimilar weld metals occurs in the __________ ...
Question 123: Thermal fatigue damage is in the form of cracking that may o...
Question 124: _________ is a change in the microstructure of certain carbo...
Question 125: Lean amine is generally not corrosive because they have eith...
Question 126: The dewpoint of hydrochloric acid depends on the concentrati...
Question 127: Stresses acting on the weldments are significantly ________ ...
Question 128: When connected to a more anodic material, titanium may suffe...
Question 129: For carbon steel, common velocity limits are generally limit...
Question 130: Dissimilar weld metal cracking can be aggravated by _______....
Question 131: With sulfuric acid corrosion, mix points with _______ cause ...
Question 132: Which of the following materials is susceptible to sigma pha...
Question 133: What test is used to determine a material's toughness?...
Question 134: To prevent hydrogen embrittlement, use lower strength steels...
Question 135: Geometry, stress level, number of cycles and _________ are t...
Question 136: Carbonate SCC can occur at relatively low levels of ________...
Question 137: Vibration-induced fatigue can be eliminated or reduced throu...
Question 138: 300 Series SS, 5Cr, 9Cr and 12Cr alloys are not susceptible ...
Question 139: Cooling water corrosion and __________ are closely related a...
Question 140: The regenerator reboiler and the regenerator are areas where...
Question 141: Susceptibility of an alloy to sulfidation is determined by i...
Question 142: Inspection for wet H2S damage generally focuses on _____ and...
Question 143: Hydrogen blisters may form as surface bulges on the ID, the ...
Question 144: Cracks associated with brittle fracture will typically be __...
Question 145: Steel hardness, __________ and stress are critical factors i...
Question 146: Nitriding is usually confined to the surface of most compone...
Question 147: The primary factors affecting high temperature oxidation are...
Question 148: ____________ is the reduction in toughness due to a metallur...
Question 149: The creep threshold temperature for 1 ¼, 2 ¼, 5 and 9 Cr is ...
Question 150: In general, the resistance of carbon steel and other alloys ...
Question 151: Changing to a more corrosion resistant and/or higher hardnes...
Question 152: ___________ is the result of cyclic stresses caused by varia...
Question 153: What structure is 409 stainless steel?...
Question 154: With sour water corrosion, streams with a pH below ________ ...
Question 155: Graphitization can be prevented by using chromium containing...
Question 156: HCL acid corrosion is found in several units, especially ___...
Question 157: When caustic stress corrosion cracking is a concern, steam o...
Question 158: Which of the following materials are the least susceptible t...
Question 159: Key factors affecting thermal fatigue are the magnitude of t...
Question 160: Corrosion rates of the anode can be high if there is a _____...
Question 161: For pressure vessels, inspection should focus on welds of __...
Question 162: Thermal fatigue cracks usually initiate on the _________ of ...
Question 163: A form of fatigue cracking in which cracks develop under the...
Question 164: Naphthenic acid corrosion is most severe in _________ flow; ...
Question 165: The presence of _________ can destabilize the scale and turn...
Question 166: For furnaces, to prevent PASCC, keep the firebox heated abov...
Question 167: Corrosion under insulation becomes more severe at metal temp...
Question 168: Where is PASCC normally located?...
Question 169: ____________ is often found in piping and equipment that han...
Question 170: Heat treatment can have a significant effect on the toughnes...
Question 171: What structure is 410 stainless steel?...
Question 172: Corrosion of the anode may be significantly higher ________ ...
Question 173: Damage due to __________ is not visible and can only be obse...
Question 174: _________ is a mechanical form of degradation that occurs wh...
Question 175: Thermal fatigue cracks propagate ________ to the stress and ...
Question 176: Weld heat affected zone graphitization is most frequently fo...
Question 177: Cracking of dissimilar weld metals occurs on the _________ s...
Question 178: PWHT is ___________ in preventing caustic SCC....
Question 179: Susceptibility to temper embrittlement is largely determined...
Question 180: Sulfidation is primarily caused by:...
Question 181: Titanium Hydriding damage occurs primarily in sour water str...
Question 182: Which of the following materials are subject to mechanical f...
Question 183: Caustic stress corrosion cracking typically propagates _____...
Question 184: ________ of a component is the most important factor in dete...
Question 185: With chloride stress corrosion cracking, __________ temperat...
Question 186: The amplitude and frequency of vibration as well as the ____...
Question 187: Temper embrittlement is a metallurgical change that is not r...
Question 188: Creep damage is found in high temperature equipment operatin...
Question 189: Amine cracking is ________ likely to occur in lean MEA and D...
Question 190: SSC is a form of hydrogen stress cracking resulting from the...
Question 191: Corrosion in boiler feedwater and condensate return systems ...
Question 192: A quick test for embrittlement from _________ is a bend test...
Question 193: In most cases, brittle fracture occurs only at temperatures ...
Question 194: Which of the methods are effective for finding thermal fatig...
Question 195: Galvanized steel components should not be welded to ________...
Question 196: Amine units are used in refineries to remove H²S, CO² and __...
Question 197: Which of the following materials is not susceptible to Cl SC...
Question 198: The loss in strength from spheroidization (Softening) is usu...
Question 199: The "L" grade of stainless steels will sensitize if exposed ...
Question 200: Damage from sigma phase appears in the form of ________....
Question 201: With Cl SCC, ________ levels of chloride ________ the likeli...
Question 202: With steam blanketing, failure occurs as a result of _______...
Question 203: Most brittle failures appear as:...
Question 204: Cavitation is best prevented by avoiding conditions that all...
Question 205: If wet electrodes or high moisture content flux weld electro...
Question 206: What treatment is used to prevent boiler feed water corrosio...
Question 207: Which of these materials is not susceptible to amine crackin...
Question 208: Mitigation of CUI is best achieved by _________....
Question 209: In vessels and piping, creep cracking can occur where high m...
Question 210: A form of corrosion caused by living organisms such as bacte...
Question 211: A form of thermal cracking, __________, can occur when high ...
Question 212: If wet electrodes or high moisture content flux is used, ___...
Question 213: ___________ cooling water outlet temperatures and/or process...
Question 214: Carbon dioxide (CO²) corrosion results when CO² dissolves in...
Question 215: Liquid metal embrittlement can occur if 300 Series SS comes ...
Question 216: __________ caustic concentrations and ________ temperatures ...
Question 217: Characteristic stress corrosion cracks have many branches an...
Question 218: Alloys with increased amounts of _______ show improved resis...
Question 219: Sigma phase occurs in Ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and ...
Question 220: Increasing the chromium in steels offers no major improvemen...
Question 221: Foul smelling water may be a sign of fouling and/or _______...
Question 222: Wet H²S services or _________ acid services are process wher...
Question 223: Amine cracking is a form of ________ stress corrosion cracki...
Question 224: With creep, increased stress due to loss in thickness from c...
Question 225: Metal dusting is preceded by ________ and is characterized b...
Question 226: ________ usually occurs when a colder liquid contacts a warm...
Question 227: With high temperature hydrogen attack, ________ using a comb...
Question 228: General or localized corrosion of carbon steels and other me...
Question 229: Stress levels and __________ are the critical factors causin...
Question 230: Exposure to high solution strength caustic can result in gen...
Question 231: The more noble material, called the ________, is protected b...
Question 232: Carbon steel is susceptible to SCC when used in ___________ ...
Question 233: In order to minimize and prevent amine SCC, PWHT all carbon ...
Question 234: ________ significantly increases the probability and severit...
Question 235: Sour water corrosion in _________ containing environments ma...
Question 236: A steam actuated soot blower has condensate in the first ste...
Question 237: A prime location for erosion is:...
Question 238: The creep threshold temperature for carbon steel is ________...
Question 239: With high temperature sulfide corrosion (Sulfidation), notic...
Question 240: Ammonium chloride salts are hydroscopic and readily absorb w...
Question 241: Short term overheating is a permanent deformation occurring ...
Question 242: ________ is a form of carbon that may promote carburization,...
Question 243: Sulfidation usually creates:
Question 244: 300 Series SS is susceptible to LME when it comes in contact...
Question 245: With ammonia stress corrosion cracking weld hardness should ...
Question 246: A carbon steel bundle from the overhead condenser in the cru...
Question 247: In design and fabrication, it is advisable to avoid sharp ch...
Question 248: Mechanical fatigue can cause cracks that initiate from the s...
Question 249: At elevated temperature, the carbide phases in certain carbo...
Question 250: Although the loss of toughness from temper embrittlement is ...
Question 251: If weld repairs are required, the effects of temper embrittl...
Question 252: The sudden rapid fracture under stress (residual or applied)...
Question 253: Susceptibility to hydrogen stress cracking __________ with _...
Question 254: What is the chemical symbol for ethane or ethylene?...
Question 255: Erosion-corrosion is a description for the damage that occur...
Question 256: What structure is 304 stainless steel?...
Question 257: Most brittle failures occur:
Question 258: All piping and equipment exposed to HF acid at any concentra...
Question 259: With hydrofluoric acid corrosion, corrosion rates increase w...
Question 260: Dissimilar weld metal cracking occurs because the coefficien...
Question 261: SOHIC is driven by localized stresses so that __________ is ...
Question 262: Which of the following is not a method used to prevent britt...
Question 263: Cracking can occur at low caustic levels if a concentrating ...
Question 264: Which of the following are susceptible to thermal fatigue?...
Question 265: Inspecting for high-cycle fatigue can be difficult since:...
Question 266: ASME Section VIII had few limitations concerning brittle fra...
Question 267: The best way to prevent 885º F embrittlement is to use low _...
Question 268: With cooling water corrosion, _________ oxygen content tends...
Question 269: Formation of a metallurgical phase known as sigma phase resu...
Question 270: Conditions favoring carburization include a high gas phase c...
Question 271: The endurance limit is usually about:...
Question 272: Which of the following materials are generally not suitable ...